Wednesday, April 16, 2008

How to set-up OSH MS at workplace

Ini adalah sekadar panduan kepada SHO-SHO yang baru-baru berjinak didalam bidang safety sekiranya diminta untuk setup OSH MS ditempat kerja yang belum mempunyai sebarang sistem OSH. Siratan ini diolah daripada NIOSH forum.

You can follow this step :

STEP 1: SET YOUR POLICY
STEP 2: ORGANISE YOUR STAFF
STEP 3: PLAN AND SET STANDARDS
STEP 4: MEASURE YOUR PERFORMANCE
STEP 5: LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE - AUDIT AND REVIEW

Following them will help you to keep your workers at work and reduce the costs of injuries, illness, property and equipment damage. You will have fewer stoppages, higher output, and better quality. By complying with the law and avoiding fines you will avoid damaging publicity. You cannot be a 'quality' organization unless you apply sound management principles to health and safety.


 

STEP 1: SET YOUR POLICY

The same sorts of event that cause injuries and illness can also lead to property damage and interrupt production so we must aim to control all accidental loss. Identifying hazards and assessing risks, deciding what precautions are needed, putting them in place and checking they are used, protects people, improves quality, and safeguards plant and production.

Our health and safety policy should influence all our activities, including the selection of people, equipment and materials, the way work is done and how you design and provide goods and services. A written statement of your policy and the organization and arrangements for implementing and monitoring it shows our staff, and anyone else, that hazards have been identified and risks assessed, eliminated or controlled.

STEP 2: ORGANISE YOUR STAFF

Make our health and safety policy effective you need to get our staff involved and committed. This is often referred to as a 'positive health and safety culture'.

STEP 3: PLAN AND SET STANDARDS

Planning is the key to ensuring that our health and safety efforts really work. Planning for health and safety involves setting objectives, identifying hazards, assessing risks, implementing standards of performance and developing a positive culture. It is often useful to record your plans in writing. Your planning should provide for:

• identifying hazards and assessing risks, and deciding how they can be eliminated or controlled;
• complying with the health and safety laws that apply to your business;
• agreeing health and safety targets with managers and supervisors;
• a purchasing and supply policy which takes health and safety into account;
• design of tasks, processes, equipment, products and services, safe systems of work;
• procedures to deal with serious and imminent danger;
• co-operation with neighbors, and/or subcontractors;
• setting standards against which performance can be measured.

STEP 4: MEASURE YOUR PERFORMANCE

Active monitoring, before things go wrong, involves regular inspection and checking to ensure that our standards are being implemented and management controls are working. Reactive monitoring, after things go wrong, involves learning from your mistakes, whether they have resulted in injuries and illness, property damage or near misses.

We need to ensure that information from active and reactive monitoring is used to identify situations that create risks, and do something about them. Priority should be given where risks are greatest. Look closely at serious events and those with potential for serious harm. Both require an understanding of the immediate and the underlying causes of events.

Investigate and record what happened - find out why. Refer the information to the people with authority to take remedial action, including organizational and policy changes.

STEP 5: LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE - AUDIT AND REVIEW

Monitoring provides the information to let our review activities and decide how to improve performance. Audits, by own staff or outsiders, complement monitoring activities by looking to see if our policy, organization and systems are actually achieving the right results.

Learn from our experiences. Combine the results from measuring performance with information from audits to improve our approach to health and safety management. Review the effectiveness of your health and safety policy.


This approach to managing safety and health for beginner or new comer. It has strong similarities to quality management systems used by many successful companies. It can help you protect people and control loss. All five steps are fundamental. How well did you answer the questions about each step? If you think there is room for improvement, act today: don't react to an accident tomorrow.

In Step 1 - Ask yourself:

1. Do you have a clear policy for safety and health; is it written down?
2. What did you achieve in health and safety last year?
3. How much are you spending on safety and health and are you getting value for money?
4. How much money are you losing by not managing safety and health?
5. Does your policy prevent injuries, reduce losses and really affect the way you work?

In Step 2 - Ask yourself:

1. Have you allocated responsibilities for safety and health to specific people - are they clear on what they have to do and are they held accountable?
2. Do you consult and involve your staff and their representatives effectively?
3. Do your staff have sufficient information about the risks they run and the preventive measures?
4. Do you have the right levels of expertise? Are your people properly trained?
5. Do you need specialist advice from outside and have you arranged to
obtain it?

The four 'Cs' of positive safety and health culture

1. Competence: recruitment, training and advisory support.
2. Control: allocating responsibilities, securing commitment, instruction and supervision.
3. Co-operation: between individuals and groups.
4. Communication: spoken, written and visible.

In Step 3 - Ask yourself:

1. Do you have a safety and health plan?
2. Is health and safety always considered before any new work is started?
3. Have you identified hazards and assessed risks to your own staff and the public, and set standards for premises, plant, substances, procedures, people and products?
4. Do you have a plan to deal with serious or imminent danger, eg fires, process deviations etc?
5. Are the standards put in place and risks effectively controlled?

SMART points about standards, Standards must be:
• Systematic;
• measurable;
• achievable;
• realistic;
• Time.

Statements such as 'staff must be trained' are difficult to measure if you don't know exactly what 'trained' means and who is to do the work. 'All machines will be guarded' is difficult to achieve if there is no measure of the adequacy of the guarding. Many industry-based standards already exist and you can adopt them where applicable. In other cases you will have to take advice and set your own, preferably referring to numbers, quantities and levels which are seen to be realistic and can be checked. For example:

• completing risk assessments and implementing the controls required;
• maintaining workshop temperatures within a specified range;
• specifying levels of waste, effluent or emissions that are acceptable;
• specifying methods and frequency for checking guards on machines, ergonomic design criteria for tasks and workstations, levels of training;
• arranging to consult staff or their representatives at set intervals;
• monitoring performance in particular ways at set times.


In Step 4 - Ask yourself:

1. Do you know how well you perform in health and safety?
2. How do you know if you are meeting your own objectives and standards for health and safety? Are your controls for risks good enough?
3. How do you know you are complying with the safety and health laws that affect your business?
4. Do your accident investigations get to all the underlying causes - or do they stop when you find the first person who has made a mistake?
5. Do you have accurate records of injuries, ill health and accidental loss?

Two key components of monitoring systems

• Active monitoring (before things go wrong). Are you achieving the objectives and standards you set yourself and are they effective?
• Reactive monitoring (after things go wrong). Investigating injuries, cases of illness, property damage and near misses - identifying in each case why performance was substandard.

In Step 5 - Ask yourself:

1. How do you learn from your mistakes and your successes?
2. Do you carry out safety and health audits?
3. What action is taken on audit findings?
4. Do the audits involve staff at all levels?
5. When did you last review your policy and performance?

Review the effectiveness of your safety and health policy, paying particular attention to:

• the degree of compliance with safety and health performance standards (including legislation);
• areas where standards are absent or inadequate;
• achievement of stated objectives within given time-scales;
• injury, illness and incident data - analyses of immediate and underlying causes, trends and common features.

These indicators will show you where you need to improve.